Aircraft Speed Entering Turn
Aircraft Rated Stall Speed
Turn Bank Angle
G Loading
Increase In Stall Speed To
74 kts
Turn Diameter
0.1 nm
360 deg Turn Time
15 seconds
180deg Turn Time
07 seconds
90deg Turn Time
04 seconds

Apply Back Pressure / Trim

When you're in a turn, your vertical component of lift decreases. In order to maintain your entry altitude, you need to apply back pressure. Look out the wind screen, and find where the horizon intersects your panel. Maintain that picture, and you'll hold your turn perfectly. Using trim can help manage control pressure too.


Add Power

Since your total lift increases with back pressure, induced drag increases too. With increased drag, you need to add power to maintain your entry airspeed.



During the recovery, you need to roll out on your entry heading. As you do this, reduce power and release back pressure on the controls so you don't balloon your altitude
A rule of thumb for a roll-out heading is to take half of the bank angle and apply that to the entry heading. For example, if your roll-out heading is 180 degrees, and you're flying a 50 degree bank angle, you should lead your roll-out by 25 degrees. Start your roll-out at 205 degrees if you're banking to the left, or 155 if you're banking to the right.


(Independent of airspeed, angle of bank gives you the "G" force in a level coordinated turn. A 60 degree bank = 2 G's, at any speed.)


Steep turns show the relationship between the “rate and radius” of a turn (the faster the rate, the smaller the radius); an airplane’s inherent over-banking tendency (which requires some amount of aileron pressure against the bank); variations in the horizontal and vertical components of lift; and how increases in load factor and angle of attack also raise an airplane’s stall speed. A level 60-degree-bank turn, for example, doubles an airplane’s load factor (to 2 Gs) and raises its stall speed to 70 knots from 50 knots at 1 G.

Steep turn success requires maintaining the desired bank angle (plus or minus 5 degrees); maintaining the desired airspeed (plus or minus 10 knots), and rolling out on the desired heading (plus or minus 10 degrees).

Over-banking tendency: The faster-moving outside wing provides more lift during a steep turn and tends to increase bank angle.

Rate and radius: The faster the rate of turn, the smaller its radius.

Maneuvering speed and the effect of aircraft weight: Maneuvering speed is highest at an airplane’s maximum gross weight. Light weight results in a lower maneuvering speed.

Load factor and accelerated stalls: A constant-altitude turn with 45 degrees of bank imposes 1.4 Gs, and a turn with 60 degrees of bank imposes 2 Gs. Stall speed increases with the square root of the load factor, so an airplane that stalls at 50 knots in unaccelerated, level flight will stall at 70 knots at 2 Gs. The margin between maneuvering speed and stall speed is sharply reduced during steep turns (and may disappear completely).